When writing tests for an application which involves a database, one of the first things you need to do is ensure sure that all of database integration tests start from a known state. Now, understandably, there are already libraries that can do this for us, such as the Database Cleaner gem. However, when we started the project, I didn’t really see the value in importing a ~1000 line library when about 10 or so lines of Ruby would do the trick, and result in a helper which was quickly comprehensible without having to hunt down the defining Gem.
- Delete all of the application data from the database
- Not violate any foreign key definitions
- Exclude certain tables (such those used to track schema versions, or reference data)
Toplogical sort is a really quite useful tool from Graph Theory, which means we can take a directed graph of table dependencies (derived from foreign keys), and derive a safe order to clean the tables in.
The code and a short example of it’s usage can be found in this gist.
One thing that might not be obvious from the code is why we reverse the sorted order before executing it. The library we use sorts from the children to the parents (i.e.: from the referenced table to the table containing the attribute), whereas if we do that, we delete the data in a table that may still referenced from another which will violate our data integrity constraints. So, rather than dropping and re-adding our data integrity constraints, it’s easier to just reverse the ordering to parent → child.
Granted, the one minor flaw with this example is that it does not yet handle circular relationships in the schema. In this case, we’ll compute an incorrect order, and end up violating some foreign keys. Fixing this would mean:
- Computing a graph in terms of per-column references
- Locating an appropriate point in the graph with nullable references
- Using UPDATE at that point instead of DELETE.
All of these things would add a degree of complexity; and part of the benefit of having a small solution like this (even though it may be technically duplicated lines of code) is that you needn’t worry about that, or the added risk of bugs, where you don’t need it.